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A couple of weeks in the past I began with a easy query: learn how to work with file add in Ktor server app? I simply arrange a pattern mission to have a playground for experiments. That was the plan, however since I learn an article about safe file switch earlier than, I got here up with the thought of combining each subjects. Thus the “ktor-encryption-server” mission was born. The primary and solely requirement I attempted to resolve was to supply a safe approach to switch a file from one person to a different. There was nothing else at first.
Now, just a few weeks after the playground mission, which did not even have automated exams, as a result of there was by no means any intention of creating it public, it has surprisingly grown right into a extra critical mission and I write this text to explain what I’ve achieved to this point.
As already talked about, the primary use case that the ktor encryption server should resolve is the safe switch of recordsdata from one person to a different. There are 2 totally different strategies obtainable for file encryption, utilizing both symmetric or uneven encryption algorithms. It’s not a part of this text to check each scientifically. You’ll find quite a lot of data on this subject (eg Symmetric-vs-Uneven-Encryotion) by googling.
For the ktor-encryption-server mission, I used the symmetric AES algorithm (see https://www.nist.gov/publications/advanced-encryption-standard-aes for added data) with a key size of 256 bytes. Superior Encryption Customary (AES) is a selected subset of a block cipher known as Rijndael. AES solely consists of three variations of Rijndael: AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256. The distinction between these flavors is the scale of the important thing and the variety of rounds used, however, and that is typically missed, not the scale of the block.
Right this moment, this algorithm is taken into account safe, even when supercomputers are used to crack it. There are a number of modes obtainable for the AES algorithm:
- ECB mode: Digital code ebook mode.
- CBC mode: cipher block chaining mode.
- CFB mode: encryption suggestions mode.
- OFB mode: output suggestions mode.
- CTR mode: counter mode.
I selected GCM which is counter mode and has excessive efficiency.
All this has to do with the idea of the encryption mechanism that I’ll clarify on this article.
AES encryption is used for two utility use circumstances:
- Consumer password (to retailer within the database)
- Add file content material (for native file storage)
Within the subsequent half, I’ll give an summary of the performance that the ktor crypto server gives to today (growth continues to be in progress, however the base performance is offered).
In an effort to add recordsdata, you must register a person that’s specified by a username (which have to be distinctive all through the server) and a password, which should meet the necessities. There isn’t a coupling of a person to an electronic mail tackle.
Password necessities are fastened presently, which implies that every password should meet the next:
- It’s a minimum of 16 characters/digits lengthy
- Incorporates a minimum of one digit
- Incorporates a minimum of one uppercase character
- Incorporates a minimum of one lowercase character
- Incorporates a minimum of one particular character.
I take advantage of the org.passay performance for this.
Particular endpoint definitions might be discovered as a postman assortment inside the repository. It’s also deliberate to supply an OpenAPI specification sooner or later.
The next use circumstances require fundamental authentication of an present person.
Change of password
The person can change the preliminary password. The identical necessities are energetic for the brand new password as for the preliminary creation
Settings associated to the person might be modified by the person, for the time being that is simply the variety of days, till an uploaded file expires and is faraway from the server.
The person can add a number of recordsdata to the server. For every file, an encrypted file identify and a randomly generated password (with the identical necessities as for the person password) are returned. This data is required to obtain the file.
Get uploaded recordsdata
The person can get an summary of all at the moment energetic recordsdata, which he uploads himself. Expired (and deleted) recordsdata aren’t a part of this data.
Get file add historical past
The person can get an summary of the operations which can be carried out on every uploaded file. Presently the add and every obtain are a part of the historical past. The historical past is deleted as quickly because the uploaded file expires.
Delete uploaded recordsdata
The person can delete an uploaded file. Just one file might be deleted at a time.
The person can delete the account, which may also delete all energetic uploads, with the corresponding historical past.
There may be an operation, which isn’t linked to a person, downloading an uploaded file, specifying the identify of the encrypted file and the password. It’s not potential to obtain a number of recordsdata directly.
There are a number of settings obtainable which have default values set within the utility.conf file, however might be custom-made by overriding them.
By default, ktor-encryption-server makes use of a database of h2 recordsdata. This isn’t an answer for productive use, however sufficient for the present demo.
driverClass = "org.h2.Driver"
url = "jdbc:h2:file:./db"
person = "root"
password = "password"
maxPoolSize = 10
The parameters for the encryption course of will also be custom-made by altering the default values which can be shipped with the applying.
fileIntegrityCheckHashingAlgorithm = "SHA-512"
defaultPasswordKeySize = 256
defaultNonceLength = 32
defaultSaltLength = 64
defaultIterationCount = 10000
defaultGcmParameterSpecLength = 128
Observe that the parameters aren’t validated when beginning the server. Meaning if they’re invalid, surprising outcomes will happen throughout encryption.
Uploads are saved by default to a go up listing relative to the applying’s working listing. This may be modified on a per route foundation, so long as the applying has write entry.
directoryPath = "./uploads"
There are duties working on the server which can be triggered on a hard and fast interval. Till now it’s not potential to customise the execution interval of the duty.
The cleanup job is to scan the configured add listing day by day for recordsdata that don’t have a associated entry within the database. These so-called “orphaned” recordsdata can’t be decrypted as a result of the encryption data is now not obtainable, even the password continues to be there. Subsequently, the recordsdata are deleted. Usually, this could not occur, as a result of deleting the add file entry within the database additionally deletes the associated file within the add listing. However by mistake or mistake it’s potential (for instance, file locked because of entry). Cleansing is for these circumstances.
The person has an expiration interval for importing recordsdata specified within the settings. The expiration job recurrently checks if this era is gone and the add file must be deleted. The elimination course of is doing the next steps:
- Delete the add file within the database.
- Delete the historical past within the database associated to this add file.
- Delete the file within the add listing.
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